O DESESPERO HUMANO

Resumo do livro de mesmo nome publicado
em 2006 em São Paulo/Br pelaMartin Claret
de autoria de Søren Aabye Kierkegaard.

Kierkegaard ousou evidenciar ser o próprio indivíduo o único responsável por dar significado à vida ao vivê-la de forma intensa e sincera. Foi o primeiro a descrever a angústia como experiência fundamental do ser livre e colocar-se em situação de escolha. Junto com Nietzsche antecipou a crise da razão do século XX, influenciou Sartre ao incluir a si mesmo no pensar e inicia assim o existencialismo.

Ao apresentar o desespero como doença mortal a definir o homem como um espírito incapaz de estabelecer-se com uma relação externa e consigo mesmo. Tal ligação consiste em orientar-se com a sua própria interioridade, numa dependência entre o finito e o infinito, entre o temporal e o eterno, entre a necessidade e a liberdade.
Ao tentar tornar-se independente nasce o verdadeiro desespero. A consciência do “eu” surge da necessidade da autonomia. No entanto, ter consciência que o desespero nada tem de externo, a busca por libertar-se cria um desespero maior e mais verdadeiro. A conclusão é que quanto mais se aprofunda para libertar-se, mais afunda. O desespero passa a ser a vantagem e a imperfeição que distancia o homem de qualquer outro animal, sendo igualmente sinal de progresso e de sublime espiritualidade.
Desesperar-se nada mais é que um sofrimento, uma doença ou a morte que projeta o homem a uma agonia interminável onde nem a morte pode salvá-lo, pois aqui o sofrimento é simplesmente o desespero de não poder morrer. No entanto, ao vislumbrar como a possibilidade de poder tornar se aquilo que se deseja, num crescimento do “eu” em direção ao si-mesmo, passa a ser dádiva de Deus no momento da criação do ser.

Nisto jaz a responsabilidade de ousar ser si próprio, ser autentico, ou seja, em tornar o sujeito coletivo num individuo autentico e exclusivo. A infelicidade não está em nada ter feito neste mundo, mas em não ter encontrado a consciência de si mesmo, em não ter percebido que este eu é o seu. Diante do si-mesmo nenhum homem se reconhecerá, pois ninguém pode reconhecer-se em um espelho se antecipadamente não se tiver encontrado.

Apesar de poder evoluir, o homem não o faz facilmente, prefere manter-se em sua comodidade, como no exemplo de uma casa com diversos andares. Adega no sobsolo, térreo, primeiro andar, cada um com espécies diferentes de moradores, comparando-se a vida em cada um deles, apesar de tudo, a maioria preferiria a adega no subsolo, onde pode encontrar tudo à mão e onde o infinito do horizonte não os provoque.

Todos os homens são uma síntese com fidelidade espiritual, preferindo viver na categoria dos sentidos, sendo contrariado quando convidado a viver no primeiro andar, por considerar que pode viver onde quiser, pois, afinal, a casa lhe pertence.

O desespero não é característica dos jovens a perder-se no desconhecido que há de vir ou do velho a reviver as lembranças do passado sem poder se arrepender dele. Apesar do viver sem buscar o “eu” verdadeiro ser um desespero inocente e viver buscando-o ser um infindável desespero na direção do crescimento, os dois modos assemelham-se no sofrimento.
O desespero no qual o homem deseja ser ele mesmo se serve da eternidade e por isso mesmo se aproxima da verdade, e é por estar próximo a ela que vai mais longe. Este desespero conduz à fé. E graças à eternidade consegue a coragem de se perder para poder novamente encontrar-se na imensidão do si-mesmo.

TESTE

Fonte: Resumo do livro de mesmo nome publicado em 2006 em São Paulo/Br pela Martin Claret de autoria de Søren Aabye Kierkegaard.
Imagem: https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRLFDS6PHgSPvxpB73A5TPb1rgEqEIdx7NQ8VoMfvj-7W0sd-kyVw040

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