ALIMENTAÇÃO EMOCIONAL

A sua fome é emocional?

Ansiedade, vícios e dificuldades nas relações, como o término de um namoro são alguns dos motivos que nos levam a comer demais, muitas vezes sem termos consciência disso. Acreditamos que “ser uma pessoa normal” é estar sempre alerta a respeito da alimentação, que devemos temer o chocolate, convencidos de que se pudéssemos controlar “essa feroz fome interior”, alcançaríamos a harmonia.

Comer quando estamos tristes, deprimidos ou insatisfeitos proporciona uma sensação passageira de bem-estar e em muitos casos a compulsão alimentar funciona como uma cortina de fumaça que nos impede de ver o verdadeiro problema: a perda do controle emocional pela necessidade de preencher o vazio em outras áreas da nossa vida.

O alimento pode se transformar em um substituto para o equilíbrio emocional.  Essa compulsão na hora de se alimentar é, muitas vezes, um desespero a nível emocional.

As dietas não funcionam porque a comida e o peso são os sintomas, não o problema. Digamos que o fato de se concentrar no peso é uma maneira de não prestar atenção nas razões pelas quais as pessoas comem compulsivamente. Isto, naturalmente, é reforçado pela nossa sociedade, que foca a atenção sobre os quilos extras e as calorias consumidas, principalmente nas mulheres.

Além de insinuar que elas têm dificuldade em lidar com as emoções, episódios (nos filmes, séries de televisão e telenovelas) são criados para levar a audiência às gargalhadas, quando mostram mulheres comendo exageradamente um pote inteiro de sorvete, por exemplo. Seja por suas diferenças hormonais e/ou suas flutuações mensais.

Não é novidade que a tensão pré-menstrual pode propiciar comportamentos de ingestão alimentar compulsiva, já que as mulheres ficam com maior tendência ao humor deprimido ou irritável em determinados períodos. Contudo, se a fome é sempre comandada pelas emoções (consciente ou inconscientemente) e não pelas necessidades nutricionais, geram-se padrões alimentares que “podem constituir uma forma de ataque ao próprio corpo”, diz Filipa Jardim da Silva, psicóloga clínica da Oficina de Psicologia, responsável pela área de comportamento alimentar e peso.

Essa fome, ao invés de ser desencadeada pelo fator fisiológico, é emocional, e surge com tal urgência e avidez que exige saciação imediata. Por isso, quem se encontra num período mais vulnerável, ou sofra de uma perturbação alimentar, procura um só tipo de comida. Rápida, calórica, rica em açúcar e gordura.

Uma forma de fugir às emoções

Mais do que uma forma de obter conforto, a comida torna-se um calmante, um meio para descarregar tensão, raiva ou frustração, provocando uma elevação temporária do humor. O problema é que na sequência dos excessos surgem os sentimentos de culpa, arrependimento, tristeza e sofrimento. Se nada for feito para travar este comportamento disfuncional, a pessoa começa a repetir os momentos em que se apoia na comida para lidar com as emoções, iniciando-se um ciclo vicioso.

No fundo, trata-se de um mecanismo de compensação face a experiências negativas, ou uma estratégia para lidar com o cansaço e o stresse. Comer de forma emocional não é solução, trazendo graves consequências para a saúde psicológica e física da pessoa, entre as quais depressão, perturbações de ansiedade, problemas relacionados com a autoimagem, excesso de peso e até obesidade.

Geneen Roth, autora especializada, mostra um trecho do seu livro que ilustra muito bem essa questão:

“Uma pessoa participou certa vez de um dos meus seminários depois de perder trinta e quatro quilos com uma dieta. Ela ficou na frente de cento e cinquenta pessoas e disse com a voz trêmula: – Eu me sinto como se tivesse sido roubada: levaram o melhor dos meus sonhos. Eu acreditava realmente que quando perdesse peso a minha vida mudaria. Mas o que mudou foi a aparência externa, o interior continua o mesmo. Minha mãe continua morta e meu pai me batia quando eu era pequena. Eu estou com raiva, me sinto sozinha e agora já não tenho mais a ilusão de emagrecer.”

Ganhar e perder peso o peso ou estar sempre de dieta é como estar em uma montanha-russa emocional de forma constante. Uma pessoa que utiliza a comida para se apoiar se embriaga através do caos, da intensidade emocional e da dramaticidade. Comer compulsivamente reflete o nosso sofrimento emocional.

Texto baseado nos sites:
 http://lifestyle.sapo.pt
 http://www.minhavida.com.br
 http://discoverymulher.uol.com.br
 Com textos da psicóloga Filipa Jardim da Silva e da autora Geneen Roth
 Imagem: Marinela Prodan para freeimages.com
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